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Poor Richard's Almanack, 1743

Friendly READER,

Because I would have every Man make Advantage of the Blessings of Providence, and few are acquainted with the Method of making Wine of the Grapes which grow wild in our Woods, I do here present them with a few easy Directions, drawn from some Years Experience, which, if they will follow, they may furnish themselves with a wholesome sprightly Claret, which will keep for several Years, and is not inferior to that which passeth for French Claret.

Begin to gather Grapes from the 10th of September (the ripest first) to the last of October, and having clear'd them of Spider webs, and dead Leaves, put them into a large Molosses- or Rum-Hogshead; after having washed it well, and knock'd one Head out, fix it upon the other Head, on a Stand, or Blocks in the Cellar, if you have any, if not, in the warmest Part of the House, about 2 Feet from the Ground; as the Grapes sink, put up more, for 3 or 4 Days; after which, get into the Hogshead bare-leg'd, and tread them down until the Juice works up about your Legs, which will be in less than half an Hour; then get out, and turn the Bottom ones up, and tread them again, a Quarter of an Hour; this will be sufficient to get out the good Juice; more pressing wou'd burst the unripe Fruit, and give it an ill Taste: This done, cover the Hogshead close with a thick Blanket, and if you have no Cellar, and the Weather proves Cold, with two.

In this Manner you must let it take its first Ferment, for 4 or 5 Days it will work furiously; when the Ferment abates, which you will know by its making less Noise, make a Spile-hole within six Inches of the Bottom, and twice a Day draw some in a Glass. When it looks as clear as Rock-water, draw it off into a clean, rather than new Cask, proportioning it to the Contents of the Hogshead or Wine (*1) Vat; that is, if the Hogshead holds twenty Bushels of Grapes, Stems and all, the Cask must at least, hold 20 Gallons, for they will yield a Gallon per Bushel. Your Juice or (*2) Must thus drawn from the Vat, proceed to the second Ferment.

(*1) Vat or Fatt, a Name for the Vessel, in which you tread the Grapes, and in which the Must takes its first Ferment.

(*2) Must is a Name for the Juice of the Vine before it is fermented, afterwards 'tis called Wine.

You must reserve in Jugs or Bottles, 1 Gallon or 5 Quarts of the Must to every 20 Gallons you have to work; which you will use according to the following Directions.

Place your Cask, which must be chock full, with the Bung up, and open twice every Day, Morning and Night; feed your Cask with the reserved Must; two Spoonfuls at a time will suffice, clearing the Bung after you feed it, with your Finger or a Spoon, of the Grape-Stones and other Filth which the Ferment will throw up; you must continue feeding it thus until Christmas, when you may bung it up, and it will be fit for Use or to be rack'd into clean Casks or Bottles, by February.

N. B. Gather the Grapes after the Dew is off, and in all dry Seasons. Let not the Children come at the Must, it will scour them severely. If you make Wine for Sale, or to go beyond Sea, one quarter Part must be distill'd, and the Brandy put into the three Quarters remaining. One Bushel of Grapes, heap Measure, as you gather them from the Vine, will make at least a Gallon of Wine, if good, five Quarts.

These Directions are not design'd for those who are skill'd in making Wine, but for those who have hitherto had no Acquaintance with that Art.

How few there are who have courage enough to own their Faults, or resolution enough to mend them!

Men differ daily, about things which are subject to Sense, is it likely then they should agree about things invisible.

Mark with what insolence and pride,
Blown Bufo takes his haughty stride;
As if no toad was toad beside.

Ill Company is like a dog who dirts those most, that he loves best.

In prosperous fortunes be modest and wise,
The greatest may fall, and the lowest may rise:
But insolent People that fall in disgrace,
Are wretched and no-body pities their Case.

Le sage entend a demi mot.

Sorrow is dry.

The World is full of fools and faint hearts; and yet every one has courage enough to bear the misfortunes, and wisdom enough to manage the Affairs of his neighbour.

Beware, beware! he'll cheat 'ithout scruple, who can without fear.

The D -- l wipes his B -- ch with poor Folks Pride.

Content and Riches seldom meet together,
Riches take thou, contentment I had rather.

Speak with contempt of none, from slave to king,
The meanest Bee hath, and will use, a sting.

The church the state, and the poor, are 3 daughters which we should maintain, but not portion off.

A achwyno heb achos; gwneler achos iddo.

A little well-gotten will do us more good,
Than lordships and scepters by Rapine and Blood.

Borgen macht sorgen.

Let all Men know thee, but no man know thee thoroughly: Men freely ford that see the shallows.

Tis easy to frame a good bold resolution;
but hard is the Task that concerns execution.

Cold & cunning come from the north:
But cunning sans wisdom is nothing worth.

Tis vain to repine,
Tho' a learned Divine
Will die this day at nine.

A noddo duw, ry noddir.

Ah simple Man! when a boy two precious jewels were given thee, Time, and good Advice; one thou hast lost, and the other thrown away.

Na funno i hun.
Na wnaid i un.

Dick told his spouse, he durst be bold to swear,
Whate'er she pray'd for, Heav'n would thwart her pray'r:
Indeed! says Nell, 'tis what I'm pleas'd to hear;
For now I'll pray for your long life, my dear.

The sleeping Fox catches no poultry. Up! up!

If you'd be wealthy, think of saving, more than of getting: The Indies have not made Spain rich, because her Outgoes equal her Incomes.

Tugend bestehet wen alles vergehet.

Came you from Court? for in your Mien,
A self-important air is seen.

Hear what Jack Spaniard says,
Con todo el Mundo Guerra,
Y Paz con Ingalatierra.

If you'd have it done, Go: If not, send.

Many a long dispute among Divines may be thus abridg'd, It is so: It is not so. It is so; It is not so.

Experience keeps a dear school, yet Fools will learn in no other.

Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum.

How many observe Christ's Birth-day! How few, his Precepts! O! 'tis easier to keep Holidays than Commandments.

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