[logo: Kansas Heritage Group] [photograph image: Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs, November 2, 1996, their last public appearance together. Copyright 1996, George Laughead,  Beat Generation Photos, all rights reserved.] [photograph image: Dennis Hopper and Bruce Conner, both Kansas natives, by Larry Keenan, San Francisco, 1996. Copyright 1996, Larry Keenan, Beat Generation Photos; Used with permission, all rights reserved.] [photo image: Beat writer William S. Burroughs photographed at home with cat Ginger, April 1997, Lawrence, KS. Copyright 1997, George Laughead] [painting image: lysidia by Charles Plymell; copyright, C. Plymell; used with permission, all rights reserved. [drawing image: Chances R, by Robert Branaman; Evergreen Review # 46, April 1967, illustrating Allen Ginsberg poem; copyright, R. Branaman; used with permission, all rights reserved.

Beats In Kansas: The Beat Generation in the Heartland

Beat Vortex    Robert Branaman    Ashleigh Brilliant    John Gary Brown    William Burroughs    Neal Cassady    Bruce Conner    Ed Dorn    Lawrence Ferlinghetti    John Fowler    Allen Ginsberg    David Haselwood    Dennis Hopper    Ronald Johnson    Larry Keenan    George Kimball    Timothy Leary    Corban LePell    Michael McClure    James McCrary    James Mechem    Moondog    Charles Plymell    Roxie Powell    Wayne Propst    Alan Russo    Ed Sanders    Lee Streiff    Glenn Todd    Anne Waldman    Wichita Vortex    S. Clay Wilson    Edgar Wolfe

[photograph: Alison Streiff Scott and George Laughead, Wichita Vortex location; camera held by Neal Smith.]

Alison Streiff Scott and George Laughead, Wichita Vortex location;
camera held by Neal Smith; August 2009.

  • Why this site?  Seymour Krim's The Beats, Dodge City and 1963, by George Laughead

    [Book cover: The Beats by Seymour Krim (1922-1989). Site author's copy.]

    ...the movement that became labeled "the Beats" started all over America in the post-WWII 1940s and early 1950's. The end of "the Beats" may have come as early as 1965, but for those of us living in Lawrence, KS, the 1968 closing of the unique Abington Book Shop -- where Charley Plymell, George Kimball and Jim McCrary worked; where Grist magazine and S. Clay Wilson were published -- and its owner John E. Fowler moving, certainly marked one ending point....

    That Beat writer William S. Burroughs, the godfather of the Beat Generation, lived long and died in Kansas marks another.

    'Anybody can make Paris holy, but I can make Topeka holy.' Jack Kerouac


RIP William Burroughs, August 2, 1997: William Burroughs Funeral Banquet, events of August 1997, by George Laughead

Beats in Kansas: A Literary Cosmic Vortex Seminar, Wichita Public Library, Wichita, Kansas; April 7, 2019

The heartland has known the Beat writers from cradle to grave -- Michael McClure and Charles Plymell were born in Kansas, and William S. Burroughs spent his last years and died in Lawrence. In between, Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder made significant trips to the state. Other Kansas figures include Bruce Connor, Dennis Hopper, James Mechem, Roxie Powell, Jim McCrary, Wayne Propst, Glenn Todd, Alan Russo, John Fowler, Justin Hein, Bob Branaman, Ronald Johnson, and Burroughs' heir James Grauerholz, to name a few. The karmic connection between Beat figures and Kansas influences the literary communities to this day. George Laughead's website Beats In Kansas was launched in 2002. Seminar sponsored by Humanities Kansas.


Kerry Wynn, Washburn University Map of Kansas Literature Project Director, introduced the new map of Kansas authors;

Troy James Weaver, Wichita writer, gave a reading, with brief comments about how the Beats influence his work;

Denise Low, former Poet Laureate Kansas, talked about Beats in Kansas: The Lawrence-Wichita Magnetic Pole

George Laughead, founder Beats in Kansas website, gave a Beat Memoir with Artifacts, Beat life from 1963-2019


Honored guests included Patrick O'Connor and David Quick.


Happy Birthday Charley Plymell; April 26, 1935; Holcomb, Kansas

[Charley Plymell and Roxie Powell, photo by Laki Vazakas, copyright 2009; used with permission, all rights reserved.]
Charley Plymell & Roxie Powell, September 2009; photo by Laki Vazakas, copyright 2009.

Expanded Charles Plymell section: [photo: Beat Generation writer Charles Plymell in Moody's Skidrow Beanery shirt, Cherry Valley, NY, 2002. Copyright 2002, Pat O'Connor.]
"Nobody Rides For Free" by Grant Hart (Husker Du), music video by Laki Vazakas, YouTube

Charley Plymell notes: "I first met Grant at B's [William Burroughs] funeral. Charles Henri Ford has a cameo in this and Ray Bremser kissing the bird. Funny story when Angelica, daughter of keyboard jazz great, Paul Bley, who lives here, brought the bird to the party, Claude [Pelieu] said 'I deedn't know whether to say tweet tweet or twat twat!'"

Charles Plymell, from Kansa, Land of the Wind People, autobiographical sketch, 12/2002; Now at Beats In Kansas, 2009

Charles Plymell The Last of the Moccasins, 1996 ('Vortex' excerpt) Beats in Kansas

Charley Plymell: The Rusty Truck Interview, introduction by A.D. Winans, 2010

Minutemen: A Tribute To "We Jam Econo" - an original moment in time, man! about guitarist D. Boon, bassist Mike Watt and drummer George Hurley, written by Charles Plymell in the winter of 2007/2008.

Charles Plymell & Mike Watt, August 2008

Charles Plymell: The Benzedrine Highway Interview, by Paul Hawkins, Reality Studio, photographs; with post-script by Glenn Todd

Charles Plymell: Low Ridin' To The Ghost Dance, video by Laki Vazakas, YouTube

"Pat O'Connor playing to my dancing at Wichita Art Museum. The Hotel Eaton is where I took Ginsberg and Robert Frank flew from NY to film us but I've never seen his film. The rest is mostly in Cherry Valley, NY." CP

Charles Plymell reads "Bennies From Heaven" poem Wichita Art Museum, June 4, 1999; video by Laki Vazakas, YouTube

Charley Plymell biography, at Cherry Valley Editions

founded in 1974 by Charles and Pamela Beach Plymell and Josh Norton: poetry and fiction from Herbert Huncke, William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Claude Pelieu and Mary Beach.

Claude Pelieu and Mary Beach: Studio/Gallery/Reality, video by Laki Vazakas, youtube, 2009

Charles Plymell reads "Charles Henri Ford's Last Prints" at Ecstatic Yod, video by Laki Vazakas, YouTube; from Hand on the Doorknob, by Charles Plymell, amazon.com

("After the famous Gough St. bash where the Beats met the Hippies, Allen [Ginsberg] invited me over for a light dinner. He was just back from India and trying to get Neal [Cassady] settled in...")

50th Anniversary of Wichita Vortex by Allen Ginsberg

Wichita Vortex Documentary with Charley Plymell, Bob Branaman, Pat O'Connor, Jim Johnson, Dr. Jay Price and George Laughead; KPTV Wichita PBS Station, 2016, youtube

Wichita Vortex excerpt from The Last of the Moccasins, by Charles Plymell, 1971. Charley was in the van with Ginsberg

Bruce Connor on Wichita Vortex, from Lee Streiff, used with permission

Writer poet Charley Plymell, November 8, 2013, New York, with poet photographer Gerard Malanga introducing Charley. Plymell's new book Benzedrine Highways is from Kicks Books (associated with Norton Records) and founder/editor Miriam Linna will be at the event. Plymell understanding of the culture of the times has kept him on the front line. Linna still rocks out as The Cramps drummer, and Gerard just completed a huge European show of his recent photography around the Hudson, NY, area.

Ian Harris and the overediting of Burroughs' Nova Trio

Beat Generation Poets & Artists -
Pat Cassidy, Philip Whalen, Robert Ronnie Branaman, Alan Russo, Ann Buchanan, Bob Kaufman, Allen Ginsberg, and Lawrence Ferlinghetti

August 1963, City Lights Bookstore, San Francisco, CA, Photograph by Charley Plymell

Nov. 23, 1963, by Allen Ginsberg; (As printed by Charley Plymell in Now Now, 1965; and annotated by him in 2010)

Alan Russo Poetry, The Locked Man, 1960; printed by Charles Plymell, Wichita

Interview with George Laughead, Beats In Kansas website author, by Michalis Limnios, BLUES @ GREECE 2013

Charley Plymell reads his poem "Soft Fascism" - Cherry Valley, NY; YouTube video by Laki Vazakas, 2011

[image: Eat Not Thy Mind book cover, collage by Claude Pelieu, used by permission, Charley Plymell, copyright 2010] Eat Not Thy Mind Charley Plymell (introduction by Mike Watt; edited by Thurston Moore and Byron Coley), reviewed by Paul Hawkins

[photograph image: poet Charley Plymell, Kansas native, by Gerard Malanga, Cherry Valley, NY, 2010. Copyright 2010, Gerard Malanga; Used with permission.] In his own time: Charles Plymell talks about his volume of poetry, Eat Not Thy Mind, by Sharon Anderson, Northside San Francisco

Byron Coley Interview: friend and publisher of Charley Plymell, Coley is major rock writer and works with Thurston Moore (Sonic Youth) on publishing projects. From Perfect Sound Forever on-line magazine, June 2010

New William Burroughs Funeral Banquet, events of August 1997, by George Laughead

Call Me Burroughs, first a recording, now an authorized book Call Me Burroughs: A Life released 28 Janurary 2014, tied to William's 100th birthday on February 05, 2014. Barry Miles, known as Miles, did the decades old biography on Burroughs (William Burroughs: El Hombre Invisible), after knowing him in London during Miles' infamous gallery years (where John Lennon met Yoko Ono), and Miles' very early beat and punk publishing.

Miles took over a 15-year long project of research by James Grauerholz, Burroughs' adopted son, lover, editor, and estate trustee. It should be a good final review of a man gone since August 02, 1997. Burroughs saw the marketing addiction, corporate scams and government controls in the 1950s and 1960s -- then, as they continue to this day. Miles was also a member of Allen Ginsberg's Committee on Poetry farm near Cherry Valley, NY, and also connected to Andy Warhol circles, and to the Beatles -- their enjoyment of Burroughs help rebirth his availability.

Oddly, the finished book leaves out anything about Burroughs work with poet and publisher Charley Plymell-- as early as 1964 -- or his association for decades with photographer Gerard Malanga -- some iconic photos -- also not in the book except for a passing reference related to Andy Warhol.

Call Me Burroughs: A Life, by Barry Miles; Reviewed in the Guardian, 08 February 2014

Related: William Burroughs' 100th Birthday, John Long, Huck magazine

A Finding Aid: William Burroughs and Brion Gysin writings, 1963-1973, 1997, Archives of American Art

Fantagraphics Acquires Lost William S. Burroughs Graphic Novel , Sept. 2010; out 2012

[The Unspeakable Mr.Hart, art work by Malcolm McNeill, © 1970; work with William Burroughs; used with permission, all rights reserved.] The Lost Art of Ah Pook is Here, Malcolm McNeill & William S. Burroughs Word/Image Novel

Malcolm McNeill Interview on William Burroughs, Ah Puch Is Here, Emmy award winning artist McNeill worked with Burroughs in London during early 1970s, on comic series, The Unspeakable Mr. Hart, and graphic novel, Ah Puch Is Here (aka, Ah Pook is Here)

"Observed While Falling: Bill Burroughs, Ah Pook and Me," by Malcolm McNeill [Excerpts]

    [A great moment in time caught forever. Beat Generation founders William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg wearing old fashion cotton PJ's with big buttons, in William's house. Photograph copyright Pat Elliott, all rights reserved, used with permission.]

    "Shooting Joan Burroughs" : Beat Generation writer William S. Burroughs at home, Lawrence, 1997. UFOs and Joan Vollmer Burroughs death. Article and photographs by George Laughead

    Who the Hell is Robert Ronnie Branaman?: YouTube video by Guy Borges and Patrick Rosenkranz

    Naked Tea, by Philip Willey; art by Lyle Schultz


    Hopperized, a tribute to Dodge City, Kansas native Dennis Hopper, by Laki Vazakas. Created in June of 2010. "Little Nemo" Copyright Grant Hart.

    Chiron Review current issue, back in print, Michael Hathaway, founding Editor, St. John, KS;

    Artist S. Clay Wilson: The Underground Genius Surfaces, by Charley Plymell, Beats In Kansas

    Zap Comix's first printer on R. Crumb: Curled in Character, by Charley Plymell, Beats In Kansas

    S. Clay Wilson Checkered Demon, Vol. 1 cover, 1998; inscribed to Charley Plymell (and Pam Plymell), courtesy C. Plymell

    New section: Robert Branaman

    Robert Ronnie Branaman, aka Barbital Bob, by Charley Plymell

    Art Coyote: Robert Branaman, 2008

    [image: Monterey Dance Concert Poster by Robert Ronnie Branaman, July 1966]

    Monterey Dance Concert Poster, Robert Ronnie Branaman, July 1966, Beats In Kansas

    [drawing: San Francisco Oracle No. 9 Backcover by Robert Ronnie Branaman, August 1967. Copyright 1967-2009, Robert Branaman. Used with permission, all rights reserved.]

    San Francisco Oracle No. 9 backcover by Robert Ronnie Branaman, August 1967 Beats In Kansas

    Collaborating on the Computer with William S. Burroughs, by Roger Holden, realitystudio.org, 2010

    "William S. Burroughs: A Man Within", feature-length documentary by Yony Leyser

    Naked Lunch: the First 50th Years, Columbia University Libraries, New York, NY

    Naked Lunch At 50, The Bourgeois Pig - Sue Ashline and the late Dalton Howard provide music; Phil Heying, Jim McCrary, and Karl Gridley; James Grauerholz; and Wayne Propst.

    Naked Lunch (NPR). At 50, Lawrence Celebration, The Bourgeois Pig, 2009, Lawrence, KS; Phil Heying photographer; flickr photo stream

    Naked Lunch@50: Symposium, organized by Dr. Oliver Harris, 2009, Paris

    Hikuta! Tom Peschio on William Burroughs and His Guns, [T.P. was close friend and helper of W.S.B.], realitystudio.org


    [photograph image: Beat writer William S. Burroughs with James Grauerholz, behind Jazz Haus, 1995, Lawrence, KS; by Gary Mark Smith, copyright 1995, all rights reserved. Used with permission.] Photograph: Beat writer William S. Burroughs with James Grauerholz, behind Jazzhaus, 1995, by Global Street Photographer Gary Mark Smith


    [Photograph:  Tangier beach with the big guns of ancient defenses. William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, and Allen Ginsberg are in famous photograph in this area. Photograph copyright 2008 by C. Woww. Used with permission. All rights reserved. Letter to Bill Burroughs: Tangiers Revisited, by C. Woww

    The Inner Circle: Memories collected from the FOBs (friends of Burroughs), by Frank Tankard, 2007

    S. Clay Wilson's medical crisis -- hard to explain that without his art, the total visual palette used today would be different.


    Donations address:
    S. Clay Wilson Special Needs Trust [official site]
    PO Box 14854
    San Francisco CA 94114
    [Courtesy, Jim McCrary, used with permission. All rights reserved.]

    William Burroughs, Jim McCrary, S. Clay Wilson -- on William's porch.

    [photograph: Corban LePell paintings in NU Music Room.] Corban LePell, University of Nebraska, 1955-1956; writings and paintings, Artistic Journey by Sylvia Smith Kleindinst

    New: The Black Experience and the Blues in 1950s Wichita & Folk Music Clubs In Wichita: Melody And Protest & The Weasels: Underground Success of A Kansas Rock Group, all by Patrick J. O'Connor

    WWW-VL: US 1960s History

    Dr. Timothy Leary, River City Reunion,
    Liberty Hall, 1987, Lawrence

    William S. Burroughs, Lawrence

    [Beat Generation photo image: Beatnik William Burroughs with rocker Patti Smith, receiving an ovation at Nova Convention Revisited, November 26, 1996, Lawrence. It was Burroughs last public event. Copyright 2000, G. Laughead ]

    Beat Vortex, Wichita Vortex

    [Beat Generation photo image: Dave Haselwood, Lee Streiff, Michael McClure - 1951.]
    • "And that's the Vortex in Toto!"
      Bruce Conner, 1987

    • The Beat Vortex Wichita, 1947-1966, (includes Bruce Conner, Dave Haselwood,
      Michael McClure, Charles Plymell, Lee Streiff), by Lee Streiff, Wichita
      [The late Lee Streiff, close friend from youth of many other more famous Beats, remained to teach high school English in Wichita, KS. His former students include university deans that stayed in touch. Lee Streiff's influence on his Beat peers -- Conner, Haselwood, McClure -- should be better known. The Wichita Vortex attracted even Beat Generation poet Allen Ginsberg to visit. March 2009 -- archive.org copy, original off-line]
    • "Chances R"; Gay Wichita in the Beat Era, by Lee Streiff
    • Flashbacks! Wichita Vortex Era art and photographs [archive.org copy]
    • MONTAGE Film Series Wichita Film Society by Ben Urish [included Wayne D. Sourbeer, Corban LePell, Charles Plymell]
    • Dave Haselwood, Lee Streiff and Michael McClure, Photograph, 1951, Wichita, KS [very early Beat Generation photo]
    • The Wichita Group by James Johnson, 1950s [Bruce Conner, Michael McClure, Enrique Riveron, David Bernard, Rex Hall, Jim Davis, Skip Harwick, Robert Kiskadden]
    • Wes Race: Cryptic Whalin', Poet and self confessed "Blues Spectatin` Fool" came out of the Wichita Vortex in the 1950s

    Robert R. Branaman, Wichita

    [Oil painting: Robert Branaman self-portrait, from late 1950's when he was about 24 years old. Used with permission, copyright, Robert Branaman, all rights reserved.

    John Gary Brown, Lawrence

    Bruce Conner, McPherson and Wichita

    [photo: Life magazine, November 30, 1959; Beats: Sad But Noisy Rebels; Site author's copy.]

    Ed Dorn, Lawrence

    • "The Cosmology of Finding Your Spot" Poem by Ed Dorn, 1969, Lawrence, Beats In Kansas [Ed Dorn on beer with Wayne Propst, George Kimball and The Great White Dog of the Rock Chalk Bar.]
    • Edward Dorn 1929 - 1999, The Independent Buffalo, NY, 1999. Electronic Poetry Center Library [The Gunslinger, a major American long poem, is Dorn's best known work. "...the mission bells are ringing in Kansas."]
    • Edward Dorn, The Philadelphia Inquirer, 1999. [Ed Dorn and Black Mountain College information.]

    John E. Fowler, Lawrence

    [photograph: Grist No. 8 (1966) magazine issue with Allen Ginsberg's Wichita Vortex; edited by John Fowler, George Kimball and Charley Plymell. Site author's copy.]
    Any reference to the original GRIST would be incomplete if there were no indication of the contribution made by co-editors George Kimball and Charley Plymell. For many issues they were, in fact, the editors, while I acted as publisher (from the thin bankroll of the Abington Book Shop which was too soon exhausted). They sought out authors, gathered material, traveled, wrote letters, made phone calls, cajoled subscribers, designed, laid out, typed, printed, collated, stapled, stamped and delivered. (John Fowler)

    Allen Ginsberg, "Wichita Vortex Sutra"

    [Photograph: Beat Generation writers Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs, November 2, 1996, KU Spencer Museum of Art, Lawrence, KS. Their last public appearance together. Copyright 1996, George Laughead]

    David Haselwood, Wichita

    Dennis Hopper, Dodge City and Wichita

    [photograph image: Dennis Hopper and Bruce Conner, both Kansas natives, by Larry Keenan, San Francisco, 1996. Copyright 1996, Larry Keenan, Beat Generation Photos; Used with permission.]

    Ronald Johnson, Ashland and Topeka

    George Kimball, Lawrence

    Dr. Timothy Leary, Lawrence

    [photograph image: Dr. Timothy Leary, River City Reunion, Photograph, with George Laughead, September 12, 1987, Liberty Hall, Lawrence; copyright 1987 by Doug L. Miller, used with permission.]

    Corban LePell, Wichita

    Michael McClure, Marysville and Wichita

    Philip Lamantia reading mss. of late John
    Hoffman-- Mike McClure, Allen Ginsberg,
    Gary Snyder & Phil Whalen--all sharp new
    straightforward writing-- remarkable coll-
    ection of angels on one stage reading
    their poetry. No charge, small collection
    for wine, and postcards. Charming event.
    Kenneth Rexroth, M.C.
    8 PM Friday Night October 7, 1955
    6 Gallery 3119 Fillmore St.
    San Fran

    James McCrary, Lawrence

    James Mechem, Wichita and Topeka

    [Photograph: Beat Generation author James Mechem in New York City the day before his 80th birthday, Oct. 30, 2003. Copyright 2003, Denise Low]
    • James Mechem Writer, Caprice magazine publisher, New York, NY, 2003;
      Interview and photographs by Denise Low, Kansas Poet Laureate, 2007-2009, Lawrence, Beats In Kansas [Beat Generation writer and native Kansan, talks about life at 80]

    Moondog, Marysville, New York and Recklinghausen

    Charley Plymell, Holcomb, Lawrence and Wichita

    [photo: Beat Generation writer Charles Plymell in Moody's Skidrow Beanery shirt, Cherry Valley, NY, 2002. Copyright 2002, Pat O'Connor.]
    At Burroughs's services, Lawrence, Kansas, August 6, 1997
    The Muse Is Satiated, well paid
    Her Splayed Wand, still sparking
    Her Stray Cats all found a pillow
    Her Nefarious Boy came home
    Osiris, share Thy Vortex Throne
                                                     -Charles Plymell

    Roxie Grant Powell, Wichita

    • Roxie Powell Kansas Collateral poems, 1978, Cherry Valley Editions, Cherry Valley, NY
    • Roxie Powell Wild Whispers Chapbook introduction from Synaesthesia Press. Robert Peters said of Powellâ��s first chapbook, "anyone anxious for an original experience in poetry will love Dreams of Straw." Allen Ginsberg paid for a second printing of the book. Friend of Charley Plymell and Dave Haselwood.
    • Roxie Powell Poems from lightweb.com [web.archive.org]
    • Roxie Powell Poetry from Thunder Sandwich #19 [archive.org]
    • Roxie Grant Powell on facebook

    Wayne Propst, Lawrence

    [photo: Wayne Propst, Lawrence, KS friend of William Burroughs.]

    Alan Russo, Wichita

    Ed Sanders, Kansas City

    Lee Streiff, Wichita

    • Lee Streiff: Writer, Poet, Teacher; July 14, 1932 - August 1, 2004 - includes tribute by Tim Miller
    • Wichita Vortex Lee Streiff's Beat Generation site [large collection of early 1950s photographs; archive.org copy]
    • Poems by Lee Streiff, from Vortex Press [archive.org copy]

    Glenn Todd, Wichita

    Anne Waldman, Boulder, CO

    [photo: Beat Poet Anne Waldman photographed at William Burroughs funeral banquet, August 6, 1997, Lawrence, KS. Copyright 1997, George
Laughead ]

    S. Clay Wilson, Lawrence

    River City Reunion logo designed by S. Clay Wilson -- Allen Ginsberg versus S. Clay Wilson. Copyright 1987, S. Clay Wilson.]

    Edgar Wolfe, Lawrence

    Magazines, Books, General Sites

    [image: Ashleigh Brilliant Pot-Shot postcard. Used with permission. Copyright, Ashleigh Brilliant]

    WWW-VL: US: 1950s History

    WWW-VL: US: 1960s History

    WWW-VL: United States History

    Special thanks to the late Lee Streiff for Wichita Vortex related links; to the late Larry Keenan for use of his Dennis Hopper - Bruce Conner photograph. (© 1996 Larry Keenan); and to Ashleigh Brilliant for permission to use "Pot-Shot" postcards and "Haight Ashbury Song Book" (© Ashleigh Brilliant). And to Denise Low, Robert Branaman, Jim McCrary, Pat O'Connor, and Charles Plymell (got a ribbon for best baby born in Finney Co. 1935) for their original articles; and to Neal Smith. For G. Brown link suggestions, best to Mark Dalton, member, Nebraska Music Hall of Fame.

    Site author: George Laughead , maintainer, Web Site Tools for non-profits. Thanks to the late Dr. Lynn H. Nelson, Emeritus Professor, History, KU, original author of WWW-VL: American West and the History Gateway at Kansas.
    Return to Artists In Kansas or to the Kansas Heritage Group.
    Return to the top. Site previously maintained at the University of Kansas. Hosted at: WWW-Virtual Library @ www.vlib.us/ Beatsvin Kansas copyright 2002. Posted: September 2002. Updated: 07 September 2020
    (Beats in Kansas term and usage © 2002-2019, George Laughead)

    Beats In Kansas: The Beat Generation in the Heartland
    URL: http://www.vlib.us/beats/